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Geological Museum

Introduction
Museums are an effective educational tool that spreads knowledge and raises the educational level. Pioneer museums in the modern times have made a giant leap. Museums are not passive memory; they rather are a tool of civilized communication and inter-cultures dialogue. Based on the above, and due to our urgent need for scientific knowledge, YGSMRB has worked towards the establishment of the geological museum within the Board's own premises in order to contribute to disseminating the scientific knowledge in general and the mining knowledge in particular. Children's learning of natural sciences like the geosciences will put them on the right track. For this purpose, the Board created a geological museum to become a scientific center and a cultural, social and entertaining milestone of pride.

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The geological museum of the Board presents exciting scientific presentations in line with the global models of various rock, minerals and fossils representing Yemen's natural history and allowing the visitors to take a journey of time introducing the history of the Yemeni land and its mineral resources. In addition, the visitor may walk around the museum and learn more about the chronological succession and the features of life on earth including the dinosaurs as visitors can know much about these extinct species.

image002The museum involves also exhibits about oil and gas and the old mining history, mining industry and the primary raw materials used in extractive and transformational industries alike.
The visitors of the museum may learn closely about these things with an entertaining modern show with sound and light effects, graphics, drawings, interactive exhibits, 3-D shows and the multi-media programs of each exhibit alone in order to maximally benefit the visitors who shall walk out with a good scientific knowledge about geosciences.

Historical background:
The establishment of the geological museum in the YGSMRB was in 1999. Ever since, the museum has been updated and extended regularly reaching a world class standard in 2011 with various state-of-the-art means being used in the presentations and in the sharing of information.

The museum's objectives:
• Disseminating the geosciences-related culture and knowledge to the society.
• Introducing Yemen's mining history across the time.
• Introducing the natural resources of the earth.
• Supporting formal education through introducing the school and institutes students to the geosciences in a concrete and practical manner leading to consolidation of the theoretical side of the school curricula.
• Recording and documenting the mining history across the ages and perceptions by modern ways and consequently strengthening the bond between the human being and his history and creating a sense of belonging.
• Registering and documenting the geological conservations in Yemen and demonstrating their tourism aspects.
• Promoting for the mineral resources in Yemen.

 The Museum's exhibits:
889Yemen's geological column is displayed in a 3-D cross-sectional manner in the east-west direction. It is located near the museum's main gate. The section is composed of rock samples collected from all over the Republic of different ages arranged from old to new.


 The revolving ball:
431A huge rocky ball consists of granite rocks of a total weight 2.5 tons. It is vibration free as it rolls over water constantly despite its heavy weight and it forms an attraction exhibit. Questions usually arise about the driving forces of the motion of such huge ball.


Geological and mineral map:
PictureA presentation of all the rocks and mineral resources of Yemen.

The volcano:
A graphic panel showing the origin and evolution of volcanoes and their types.

Rocks and minerals:
Rock samples of all types (igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic) are displayed with graphics on the origin and the life cycle. Metallic minerals, metals, industrial and construction rocks along with precious stones are shown.
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The universe
244Posters showing the early cosmogony, the earth, the other planets and nebula. The solar system and the milky way galaxy.

The Precambrian eras
This pavilion shows the properties of the Precambrian eras which are the primitive early period with primitive forms of life such as algae, fungi and mollusks. The earth at that time was exposed to massive volcanoes that flooded it leading to confining the life forms to gelatinous microscopic spots in warm and seas fading away in billions with the sea waves. These gelatinous spots merged to make very small living creatures of various forms such as mollusks. Some of which descended to form plants while mollusks formed shells around them marking the great beginning of life on earth.  image001

Paleozoic Era:
This section shows the sequence of life on earth since the formation in water as single-celled organisms to their blossom by the end of these eras with the extinction of some species like the trilobite which was like the wood weevil having a armored back and a smooth slack belly. This era started since 543-280 million.

  Mesozoic Era:
9123These were the periods when the dinosaurs prevailed. Life was divided into three main ages; dinosaur age, and this section was supplied by an animated model and a variety of educational materials. It is noteworthy that the dinosaur model was built based on the dinosaur footprints which were discovered lately in Yemen. This era is characterized by the emergence of small mammals.

Cenozoic Eras
This section shows fossils of these eras in addition to the necessary information and graphics, drawings and multimedia. This era started 63 million years ago and has continued up to date. This era covers the Epoch period which continued for 2 million years and then the Holocene which continued until now.  This era was characterized by the formation of the mountainous ranges such as the Alps, the Andes and the Himalaya and the eruption of several volcanoes in different parts with ice covering large parts of earth.
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شكل يوضح تطور الحياة على مر العصور الجيولوجية

Oil and gas section:
This pavilion contains the basic information to comprehend the oil and gas geology and their importance in our daily life along with the exploration and extraction methods and the final products of oil derivatives using 3-D models and multimedia.
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Old mining and mines:
A demonstration of the old mining history of Yemen is presented with a clarification of the old mines sites and the industries that were founded on these minerals. This pavilion also includes information about the modern mining industry and its key methods and information.

8All of this is narrated in tunnel simulating the mine tunnel with the necessary techniques to explain the mining technology, the tools and the information.

Geology and industry:
This pavilion exhibits some minerals used in basic industries such as cement, ceramic and glass with a show of samples and models of the steps followed to treat these minerals and obtain the final product.

4-D world:
Globe4D-earth-and-other-planets-640A demonstration of the continental disintegration over the time, planets and water levels on earth and climate change on a motion ball surrounded by a rotating disk representing the fourth dimension and showing the geological era with all the information being projected using an overhead projector for the first time in Arabic language.

The volcanic eruptions:
volcano1A demonstration of a volcanic eruption using multimedia effects on a 3-D volcano's model surrounded by a large poster depicting the volcano's eruption moment and the resulting scene with a narration of information and a short film about the "ring of fire" (the World' volcanic belt).
Geological Museum