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Investment opportunities in industrial minerals in Yemen

Yemen is characterized by the occurrence of minerals and industrial rocks in large quantities and good quality.  As many of the deposits occur close to infrastructure and this will facilitate commercial development of these deposits.  with the majority of them being concentrated in,, populated areas having the necessary infrastructure and facilities to  ease the investment process. These minerals and rocks include limestone, gypsum, perlite, pumice, saltpeter, clay minerals, silica sandstone, scoria, zeolite, feldspar, quartz and silica sand. Yemen is also contains an featured by the abundance of building and decoration stones of high quality standards such as granite, gabbro, marble, basalt, tuff and ignimbrite.

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Based on the implemented geological studies, the investment opportunities in industrial minerals and rocks have been identified in a number of fields such as the manufacturing of cement, glass, ceramic, gypsum, rock wool, chemical industries, salt production and building and decoration stones. Such opportunities may be summed up as follows:

1. Natural Zeolite:

Natural zeolite ores in Yemen occur in abundant quantities estimated at over 200 million cubic meter with multiple commercial types of international standards such as clinoptilolite, heulandite and mordinite. Mineral analyses have revealed a high purity of zeolite minerals of up to 95% in some areas. Chemical tests show a decline in the iron ferrite and magnesium percentages and faced by increasing amounts of sodium, potassium and calcium. Based on their chemistry, these zeolite minerals are pure by international standards and may have In light of the mineral and chemical studies anthe comparison with similar international sediments, it becomes clear how pure the ores are and potentials of using such ores in various applications such as; oil refining as an intermediate material, paper, detergents and plastic manufacturing, cement and drilling fluids production, natural gas and sewerage water purification, soil additives to improve the yields, treatment of the barns' wastes and absorption of odors and additives to the animal fodder. The most important investment opportunities in zeolite can be listed as follows:

1. Maryiah- Dhamar: 9 million cubic meter
2. Al-Qaidah- Ibb: 37 million cubic meter
3. Al-Adanah- Taiz: 53 million cubic meter
4. Al-Ahyuq- Taiz: 86 million cubic meter

2. Magnesite:

The Magnesite sediments occur in Thanyiah in Mareb where they are of high quality and of substantial tonnages. These deposits are a source of raw materials for producing in good economic deposits and high quality allowing the set up of substantial projects for magnesia and magnesium products. The reserves are estimated at about 58 million m3 and their grade is . The results of the chemical analysis showed that the magnesium oxide percentage is 43.76- 47.65% MgO. which underscores the purity of the ores and the possibility of diversifying the applications to involve This high grade magnesite may have application in industrial, construction and agricultural applications such as; the manufacturing of refractory substances for lining the furnaces, templates used for the production of steel, glass and ceramic industry as smelting materials to reduce the melting point of some metals and increase their fluidity while improving the final product, filling materials for paints, plastics and paper, soil amendments and carriers of pesticides as well as in the production of magnesia as the magnesium oxide is used in the industry of magnetic iron sheets and pharmaceuticals and cosmetics production.    

3. Dolomite:

Dolomite sediments occur in Yemen in good economic deposits and high quality. The reserves are estimated at about 3.4 billion m3 at a grade of The results of the chemical analysis showed that the magnesium oxide percentage is 11-23% MgO.   In Rayyan area in Al Jawf, the dolomite sediments are of extreme purity of 98-100%, and the chemical analysis showed that the magnesium oxide percentage ranges between 19.84 and 23.05% MgO. The grade of the deposit is such that it lends itself to numerous which underscores the purity of the ores and the possibility of diversifying the applications to involve industrial, construction and agricultural applications such as; the manufacturing of creams and toothpastes, especially crystallized dolomite, the production of dolomite fractions for mosaic tiles and limestone bricks, soil conditioners amendments and carriers of pesticides as well as in the production of decoration stones. The most important investment opportunities in dolomite can be summarized as follows:

1. Rayyan- Al Jawf: 50 million m3.
2. Wadi Hada, Shabwah: 64 million m3.
3. Al-Arm, Shabwah: 8 million m3.
4. Wadi Shahn, Mahra: 43 million m3.
5. Broum, Hadramawt: 1.9 billion m3
6. Ras AlKha, Mukalla, Hadramawt: 47 million m3.

4. Pure Limestone:

Yemen has numerous areas with pure limestone suitable for Considerable projects may be set up in the field of pure limestone exploitation as it is featured by international specifications allowing the production of lime and calcium carbonates to take place according to the international standards. Ores are spread out in various places such as the Hadramawt belt, Mahra and Sana'a. Reserves are estimated at 3.6 billion m3.  Analytical results show that The results of the chemical analysis showed the purity of the ores; calcium oxide percentage ranges between 51.50 and 55.60%, silica 0.03 and 4.28% and ferrite 0.02 and 0.72%.  Physical measurements give experiments have shown that the density of the ores is 2.4-2.7 gm/ cm3, whiteness degree is 81.70 to 95.15% and the surface area is 2685 to 4488 m2/ gm which is typical of confirms the high purity of limestone.  This limestone may have applications in the industries of  in Yemen and the possibility of diversifying the applications to involve industrial, construction and agricultural applications such as; the manufacturing of lime, soda sand, ceramic and glass industry, steel industry, metallic smelting, rubber, plastics and paints industry and as fillers and for other chemical applications.  A summary of the most important investment opportunities in pure limestone is presented hereunder:

1. Ras Darja, Mahra: 300 million m3.
2. Nashtoun, Mahra: 28.8 million m3.
3. Shagout valley, Mahra: 54 million m3.
4. Mashit valley, Mahra: 31 million m3.
5. Fuwwah, Hadramawt: 60 million m3.
6. Fuwwah, Hadramawt: 21 million m3.
7. Batayis, Abyan: 76 million m3.
8. Raha, Lahj: 50 million m3.
9. Mahar valley, Lahj: 32 million m3.
10. Habat, Sana'a: 27 million m3.
11. Qawbarah, Sana'a: 200 million m3.
12. Haylan mount, Mareb: 148 million m3.
13. Ottmah, Dhamar: 30 million m3.
 

Rock Salt:

Rock salt deposits in Yemen occur in the form of salt domes within the Sabatayn Formation rocks (Amran Group) of which is dated back to the Upper Jurassic age and located at  Marib, Shabwa and Hajar. The Rock salt can also occurs in the be traced in Salif formation (Tihamah Group) of late Triassic age which is dated back to the Late Triassic Period within Salif- Luhayia zone. There are Rock salt deposits in over 11 sites making reserves of more than 390 million m3. The major investment opportunities in saltpeter are:
1. Safir, Marib: 25 million m3.
2. Ayad, Shabwah: 1.5 km x 3.9 km
3. Kharwa, Shabwah: 1 km x 2 km
4. Lyadim, Shabwah: 1.2 km x 3 km

5.Gypsum

There are multiple opportunities for the commercial development of gypsum deposits in Yemen. Whilst gypsum has not been mined previously in Yemen there are abundant deposits.  These deposits . investments in the field of gypsum ore exploitation for gypsum plates and gypsum products industry in Yemen. There hasn't been a gypsum factory in Yemen until now despite the abundant economic quantities which are estimated at 4.6 billion m3 with  good specifications; SO3 concentration ranges rates range between 32.40 and 51.90%, insoluble materials are between 0.60 and 1.20% and the purity of the gypsum ranges with the purity of gypsum ranging between 65.40 and 98.00%. Local and International demand for gypsum this substance is rapidly increasing. Moreover, most of the gypsum sites are close to the seaports on the Arabian Sea and the Red Sea which gives a logistical and commercial advantage as it facilitates is a tremendous advantage allowing the exportation of gypsum products at minimal cost and giving the investor a competitive advantage on and leading to these products earning high competiveness in international markets. The gypsum investment opportunities can be summed up as follows:

1. Ghail Bawazir, Hadramawt: 7.6 million ton.
2. Aqabat Ashash, Hadramawt: 2.4 billion m3
3. Ghabar, Hadramawt: 40 million m3
4. Eastern Deyce, Hadramawt: 7 million m3   
5. Ghabaryia, Mahra: 1.8 billion m3
6. Nayibat balley, Mahra: 75 million m3     
7. Baleet al-Hadeed valley, Mahra: 180 million m3       
8. Mahfad, Abyan: 7.7 million m3

6. Pumice:

There are good investment opportunities in the field of polishing and emery materials in Yemen with the potential of exploiting the pumice sediments and pumicite which occurs spread out in economic reserves mainly in the Laycy area in Dhamar where there are estimated to be about with approximately one billion m3 of reserves. estimated reserves there. The analytical specifications of these reserves is Such reserves enjoy standard specifications with silicon dioxide ranging between 58.40 and 74.21%, aluminum 7.59 and 10.83%, magnesium between 0.01 and 0.23%, sodium between 3.62 and 7.06% and potassium 3.28 to 4.72%.

7. Heavy mineral deposits metals

Heavy mineral deposits consist of metals are composed of economic minerals such as gold, platinum, monazite, zircon, cassiterite, chromite, wolframite, rutile, magnetite, Ilmenite, diamond, corundum, garnet etc and so on which are used in many industries such as aircraft structures, ceramics and sanitary ware, refractory substances, and abrasives emery materials. In Yemen there are many black sand sites containing heavy metals such as Ilmenite, Rutile, Zircon and Monazite along the coastline of the Arab Sea and the Red Sea. The total reserves of black sand in Yemen containing heavy metals are estimated at about 500 million tonnes. The black sand sites in Hadramawt represent good investment opportunity as they contain an encouraging percentage of heavy metals and are on the coast of the Arab Sea close to the sea ports. The following table shows the main specifications of heavy metals in Yemen:
table

8.    الفلدسبار

تتواجد خامات معادن الفلدسبار في اليمن في أكثر من 16  موقعاً، على هيئة عروق وعدسات في صخور البجمتايت المصاحبة للصخور الجرانيتية، وفي صخور البجمتايت نايس وصخور الشيست المتحولة التي تعود لعصر ما قبل الكامبري، وتوجد بألوان متعددة كالأبيض، الرمادي والوردي، وتحتوي معادن الفلدسبار في اليمن على الفلدسبار البوتاسي الذي يعرف باسم (بوتاس سبار) و الفلدسبار الصودي الذي يعرف باسم (صودا سبار). تتواجد معادن الفلدسبار في مناطق عديدة تقع ضمن نطاقات حجة، شبوه، و أبين، ويقدر احتياطي خام الفلدسبار بحوالي 44 مليون متر مكعب، وفيما يلي ملخص لأهم فرص الاستثمار في الفلدسبار:-

1.    وادي بوحل - حجه: 14 مليون طن.
2.    وادي بني نشر - حجه: 8 بليون متر مكعب.
3.    وادي شرس - حجه: 13 بليون متر مكعب.
4.    جبل المصانعة – أبين: 600 ألف طن.
9.  الحجر الرملي النقي
تنتشر رواسب الحجر الرملي النقي في أكثر من 25 موقعاً ضمن محافظات شبوه، صنعاء، صعده، وتعز. يتميز الحجر الرملي النقي بارتفاع نسبة السيليكا، حيث تصل في بعض المواقع إلى حوالي 99.4 %، وتجانس حبيبات الكوارتز وانخفاض نسبة الشوائب. ويقدر احتياطي الحجر الرملي النقي في اليمن بحوالي 2 بليون متر مكعب، وفيما يلي ملخص لأهم فرص الاستثمار في الحجر الرملي النقي:-

1.    ثقبان - صنعاء: 420 ألف طن.
2.    طوظان – صنعاء: 63 مليون متر مكعب.
3.    حبان - شبوه: 4.8 مليون متر مكعب.
4.    الحبط – صعده: 60 مليون متر مكعب.
5.    دلعان – صعده: 10 مليون متر مكعب.

10.    الاسكوريا

تنكشف رواسب الاسكوريا في اليمن على هيئة مخاريط بركانية مع صخور البازلت والإجنمبرايت، و أحياناً مع الرماد البركـاني والمواد الطينية، وتتميز بكثرة الفراغـات وتعدد الألوان من الأحمر الخمري، والأحمر المصفر إلى الأسـود، ذات تكـوين أنديزايتي– بازلتي (تتراوح نسبة أكسيد السيليكون من 50 % حتى 60 %). تتواجد رواسب الاسكوريا في مناطق محددة تعرف بالحقول البركانية الرباعية وهي حقل صنعاء – عمران، حقل ذمار – رداع، حقل شقره و بير على وحقل مأرب–صرواح، ويقدر الاحتياطي الجيولوجي لرواسب الاسكوريا في اليمن بحوالي 1.7 بليون متر مكعب، وفيما يلي ملخص لأهم فرص الاستثمار في الاسكوريا:-

1.    حقل مارب – صروح البركاني: 925 مليون متر مكعب.
2.    حقل صنعاء – عمران البركاني: 411 مليون متر مكعب.
3.    حقل ذمار – رداع البركاني: 495 مليون متر مكعب.
4.    حقل شقره البركاني: 7.6 مليون متر مكعب.
5.    حقل بير علي: 867 ألف متر مكعب.

11.    البازلت لصناعة الألياف البازلتية

توجد فرص استثمارية جيدة ومتاحة في مجال صناعة الألياف البازلتية (الصوف الصخري والأنابيب البازلتية) في اليمن، نظراً لتوفر احتياطي كبير من الصخور البازلتية وتواجدها في مواقع تتوفر فيها معظم البنى الأساسية اللازمة، وتميزها بمواصفات فنية قياسية، حيث أوضحت نتائج التحاليل أن نسب أكسيد السيليكا تتراوح بين 47.80 إلى 49.15%، والألومينا بين 12.70 إلى 15.80%، والحديد بين 11.20 إلى 15.44%، وتراوحت قيمة معامل اللزوجة بين 1.2 إلى 1.8، ومعيار الحامضية بين 1.66 إلى 2.50%، وفيما يلي ملخص لأهم فرص الاستثمار في البازلت:-

1.    القوفعه - إب: 54 مليون متر مكعب.
2.    منوز - إب: 28 مليون متر مكعب.
3.    نجد الجماعي - إب: 1 بليون متر مكعب.
4.    الصباحه - صنعاء: 42 مليون متر مكعب.
5.    عمد – ذمار: 24 مليون متر مكعب.