Investment opportunities in metallic minerals in Yemen

The available information from the previous projects and the results of the exploration and prospecting projects signal out the existence of considerable potential mineralization of gold, lead, zinc, copper, silver, nickel, iron and titanium. The former studies have revealed that Yemen's geological conditions and factors are consistent to some extent with the ideal regionally and internationally registered patterns. Based on the executed geological studies, the investment opportunities in metallic minerals have already been determined in several fields like gold, copper, nickel, platinum, zinc, lead, iron, titanium, rare earth metals, Tungsten, Tin and radioactive elements. A summary of these opportunities is provided hereunder:

1. Gold

goldmapyemenGold occurs both as free gold in quartz veins and in combination with other minerals such as arsenopyrite, pyrite copper and other metallic minerals.  Gold deposits in Yemen are found in metamorphosed sedimentary and volcanosedimentary rocks, and in Precambrian basement rocks such as amphibolites gneisses.  Gold mineralization appears to be concentrated in brittle rocks in zones of high strain. .Gold also occurs in Tertiary volcanic rocks. exists in combination with deposits the sediments of other metallic minerals such as copper and arsenopyrite in the shape of fine crystals in the quartz veins  which exist in the form of compressed lenses in the volcanic and metamorphic sedimentary rocks and also in the  amphibolites affiliated to the basement rocks (Precambrian) in addition to the existence of gold in the tertiary volcanic rocks. The results of exploration studies that involved geological and geochemical surveys have concluded that there are over 50 sites of gold and silver occurrence. The major gold blocks in Yemen are: 

First: Areas open for investments:
1. Riaq- Namassa- AlJawf: 5.3 gm of gold/ ton.
2. Mattamah- AlJawf: 5.4 gm of gold/ ton.
3. Mahjal- AlJawf: 1.1 gm of gold/ton
4. Sabrein mount. In AlJawf: 18 gm of gold / ton.
5. Rayyan- AlJawf: 4.6 gm of gold/ ton.
6. Haydan- Saqeen- Sa'ada: 7.3 gm of gold/ ton.
7. Nuwwah- Ba'alan- Hajja: 4 gm of gold/ton.
8. Bahra- Hareeb Al-Qaramish- Mareb: 16.5 gm/ ton.
9. Najd- malaji in Shabwah: 6 gm of gold/ ton.
10. Shaharah- Amran: 0.5 gm of gold/ ton
11. Khaulan- Sana'a: 0.3 gm of gold/ ton.
12. A'atheen- Dhamar: 0.12 gm of gold/ ton.
13. Manakha- Sana'a: 0.3 gm of gold/ ton
14. Waraqah- Dhamar 120 ppb of gold.
15. Al-Qafer- Ibb: 4000 ppb of gold.
16. Emsarrah- Abyan 0.7 gm of gold/ ton.
17. Yam Mount. In Sana'a: 112 gm of gold/ ton

Second: areas awarded to investors:
1. Al-faydh in Sa'ada: 11.7 gm of gold/ ton (Cantex Company).
2. A'ahim- Hajja: 73 gm of gold/ ton (VOLROCK mining)
3. Hariqah- Hajja: 16 million ton, 1.65 gm of gold/ ton (Cantex Company).
4. Sharis valley in Hajja: 2.5 gm of gold/ ton (Thani Dubai Mining).
5. Ottma- Dhamar: 3.2 gm of gold/ ton (CC Mining).
6. Wazi'aiyah- Taiz: 0.6 gm of gold/ ton (CC Mining).
7. Shatbah- Abyan: 35 gm of gold/ ton (Ansan Wikfs).
8. Mudan valley in Hadramawt: 15 gm of gold/ ton (Thani Dubai Mining).

2. Zinc and Lead Mineralization:

ZincMapYemenThere are several occurrences of zinc and lead in Yemen (sse below).  These occur mainly as replacement deposits in limestones and dolomites in the Ramlat el Sab’atayn graben .  These deposits are thought to be of There is an occurrence of zinc and lead formations in Yemen within Amran Limestone Group (Jurassic) which is depressed towards Ramlat el- Sab'atayn basin in the form of clefts and pockets in the dolomite rocks. Such mineral formations do also occur within the dolomite and limestone of the Pliocene Age. The main zinc and lead blocks in Yemen can be listed as follows:

First: Open areas for investment:

1. Jabal Al-Ahmar in Sa'ada: 0.24% zinc and 2.1% lead.
2. Aqabah- AlJawf: 3% zinc and 0.4% lead.
3. Thaybin – Amran: 16% zinc.
4. Baran Al-Kawl- Sana'a: 16.5% zinc and 6.5% lead.
5. Haylan- Mareb: 4.5%zinc and 4 gm silver/ ton.
6. Jardan- Shabwah: 0.3% zinc and 1% lead.
7. Tabaq- Jabal Al-jebal- Shabwah: 12% zinc and 3.8% lead.
8. Yaba'ath- Shabwah: 4.8% zinc
9. Ramah- Shabwah: 7% zinc
10. Irqah- Shabwah: 792 ppm zinc.
11. Ras Sharwayn- Hadramawt: 1% zinc, 2.6% lead.

Second: areas awarded to investors

1. Jabal Salab- Sana'a: 12.6 million tons in a concentration of 9% zinc and 1.2% lead, 68 gm/ ton of silver (Jabal Salab Company).
2. Wadi Masilah- Hadramawt: 8% zinc and 12% lead (Naine Minerals).

3. Copper, Nickel and Platinum Group Elements (PGE):


Cu-Ni-PtmapYemenCopper, nickel and cobalt minerals occur in Yemen within the basement rocks of the Precambrian age. Exploration is limited to a wide-range prospecting efforts that were confined to the Precambrian rocks (metamorphic and intrusive rocks) indicating the occurrence of a number of island arcs which are composed of sedimentary volcanic belts having phenomena that signal out the existence of a friendly environment for copper, nickel and cobalt. The most important copper, nickel and platinum group blocks are listed as follows:

First: Areas open for investments:
1. Ma'abar valley- Sa'ada: 0.3 ppm palladium
2. Salbah valley- AlJawf: 1.7% copper, 4.7% chrome.
3. Saryan valley- Qaya'ah: 3.4% copper, 103 ppb palladium and 61 ppb Platinum.
4. Zaher- Al-Beidha: 2.32% copper, 16.6 gm of silver per ton.
5. Al Humayqan- Al-Beidha: 0.2% copper.
6. Qadeer- Shabwah: 1.5 ppm platinum and 1.3% chrome.
7. Qubbayta- Taiz: 140 ppb Palladium and 87 ppb Platinum.

Second: Areas awarded to investors:
1. Masna'ah: 1.21% copper and 7.65% nickel (Cantex).
2. Qutabah, Hajja: 0.8% nickel and 0.3% copper (Cantex).
3. Suwar, Amran: 1.4% nickel and 0.9% copper (Cantex).
4. Fadiha – Baihan- Al-Beidha: 4% copper, 10.5% nickel (Ansan Wikfs)
5. Hamoura: 4 million tons with 0.6% copper, 0.4% nickel (Stone Resources).
6. Ghabar- Hadramawt: 1.2% copper (Thani Dubai Mining).

4. Rare Earth  elements, tantalum, and niobium Mineralization:


rare-earth-elements-YemenThere is considerable mineralization of rare earth elements, including tantalum, and niobium in Yemen (“Rare Metals”).  These metals occur mainly in   the Republic occurring in Carbonatite and pegmatite within the Precambrian basement rocks in areas like: lawdar (Al-Beidha), Nisab and Marbone (Shabwah), Sabab and Burha (Abyan) and in Tertiary the granite intrusions (the Tertiary Era) in Malhan (Al-Mahweet). The following is a summary of the Rare Metal major rare  element mineralization in Yemen:

First: Areas open for investments:
1. Kitaf- Sa'ada: 140,000 ppm?? Tantalum
2. Mubeen- La'ah valley- Hajja: 1500 ppm Tantalum, 7400 ppm Tungsten.
3. Malhan Mount. Mahweet: 130-290 ppm Tantalum, 130,000 ppm cesium.
4. Sabab- Burha- Abyan: 0.001-0.12% Tantalum and 0.01-0.85% Niobium.
5. Lawdar- Abyan: 27.7 thousand tons of 3.8% concentration of Tr2O3 and 14.5% of Be and 100-120 thousand tons of Tr2O3 and 10 thousand tons of Nb2O5.

Second: Areas awarded to investors:
1. Nisab, Mujab, Shabwah: 30-40 thousand tons of Nb2O5 and 30-40 thousand tons of Tr2O3. New indicators have emerged ranging between 0.01-0.13% of Niobium and 0.005-0.01% Tantalum in Nisab with other indicator of good quantities of rare elements ranging from 0.02 to 0.05% of tantalum and 0.010- 0.02% of Niobium in Mujab (Ansan Company).


5. Iron Ferrite – Titanium Mineralization (Fe-Ti Ti-Fe mineralization):


IronTitaniumMapYemenIron Ferrite had been mined mineralized in the Sa'ada region in ancient times.  in the ancient ages. In general, there are ferruginous sediments in Yemen that occur within the volcanic rocks of medium texture and of marine origin in varied concentrations intruded with marble rocks and accompanying the fine grains of diorite rocks intrusions in the shape of lenses in addition to the ferrite sediments occurring within the basic and ultrabasic intrusions. The major ferrite and titanium blocks in Yemen are:

Sedimentary deposits of hematite were quarried for iron in the Sa’ada region in Ancient times.  Iron in Yemen, sometimes accompanied by titanium ,  occurs as stratiform deposits in marine sediments, in meta volcanosedimentary rocks as Sedex and VMS deposits and as lenses, blebs and disseminations in dioritic, basic and ultrabasic intrusions.  The main iron – titanium mineralization in Yemen is tabulated below:

First: Open Investment areas:
1. Ablah Mount. Sa'ada: 940 thousand tons in a concentration of 34% iron ferrite and 11% Manganese.
2. Hamar Mount. Al-Dhalie: 2.1 billion tons 33.8% ferrite iron and 8.8% titanium oxide.
3. Mikeras- Al-Beidha: 130 million tons of iron mineralization averaging ferrite ore in a concentration of 15.5% Fe, 46 million tons of Titanium oxide averaging in a concentration of 5.3% TiO2 and 27 million tons of phosphates in a concentration of 3.14% P2O5.
4. Al-Ray- Al-Beidha: 2.1 million tons of iron ferrite averaging oxide in a concentration of 35.6-49.8% iron oxide.
5. Moura (upper Yafaie)- Lahj: 22.6% iron   ferrite oxide and 8.3% titanium oxide.
6. Yathbab- Abyan: 35.5% iron ferrite oxide, 7.8% titanium oxide and 4.7% phosphoric oxide.
7. Souk Thala'atha- Lahj: 28% iron ferrite oxide and 4.4% titanium dioxide.
8. Muneef Mount. Lahj: 16% iron ferrite oxide, 7.5% titanium dioxide and 5% phosphoric oxide.
9. Al-Antari- farshah- Lahj: 8.7 million tons; 27% iron ferrite oxide, 5.5% titanium dioxide.

Second: the Blocks awarded to investors:
1. Thanyiah- Mareb: 96% iron ferrite oxide (Yemen Iron Steel Company).
2. Sabah, Al-Beidha: 800 thousand tons; 74% iron ferrite oxide (Shabbir Metals Company)
3. Um Halwal (Majil) Abyan: 46 thousand tons 68% iron ferrite oxide (national cement Company).

6. Tin and Tungsten mineralization:

Tin and Tungsten mineralization occur in Yemen in post kinematic granites intruding the granite rocks of the post-tectonic movements within the basement rocks (Precambrian) in Qahallah mount in Sa'ada. Tungsten concentrations range  occurrence ranges between 400 and 1035 ppm along  gm/ ton with 690 ppm of Tin as well as 1100 ppm Niobium and 600 ppm Tantalum. There are also tin and tungsten mineralization occurrences within the Tertiary granite rocks in Sa'adi-Nahm Mount in Sana'a with tungsten concentrations of amounts to 268 gm/ton and tin 694 ppm respectively.

7. Radioactive elements mineralization:

Uranium has been located spotted in Ahwar, Abyan where it occurs as lenses in Cretaceous sandstones. There are within the rocks of the Cretaceous Sandstone taking the shape of lenses of ferruginous sandstone amounting to 6 lenses of 1.43 m average thickness and 150 to 800 m length. The results of Studies have shown that the Uranium concentration percentage is 0.042 to 0.343%. Uranium and Thorium indicators have been located spotted in iron rich conglomerates within Wajid sandstone in Wadi Marwan, Wadi Al-Nushour and Wadi Acquan in Sa'ada. Radioactive meter readings range between 100 cps to 1600 cps in conglomerates with which contains uranium grades of amounting to 0.076-0.1%. Moreover, there have been encouraging signs of uranium and thorium within the Pegmatite rocks of Juban (Al-Dhalie) and as the chemical analysis tests have revealed percentages of up to 1300 ppm of uranium and 1800 ppm of thorium. Similarly, good indications of uranium and thorium occur within the pegmatite rocks in Shwayfah- Haifan in Taiz with chemical results giving tests showing percentages of up to 2700 ppm of uranium and 16000 ppm of thorium with  concentrations  good signs of thorium in some areas reaching 2730 ppm.