flag

Marine Geology

Introduction:

Marine geology covers studies of the following:
5 • the sea floor is related to the study of the bottom of the sea,
• the movement of the tectonic plates,
• defining the sources of marine sediments,
• changes that take took place along the coasts,
• bathymetric mapping,
• preparing grain-size distribution maps of marine and Recent coastal sediments,
• the  study of the physical characteristics such as the movement and speed of the ocean currents,
• the heat and salinity of water,
• study of the chemical characteristics of the  sea water to determine the amount of define the nutrients and the pH acids concentration to monitor water quality know the quality of water and determine  specify the pollution levels, its sources and effects on the coral reefs and sediments along with dealing with the environmental issues and marine pollution. The key areas of marine geology are:

• Study of the Continental Shelf and the economic minerals contained therein.
• Study of the coasts and the black sands that contain mineral sediments such as magnetite and Ilmenite. This is in addition to the study of the rocks shaping the coasts and their substantial elements such as the radioactive elements, phosphate elements and their effects on the coasts soil and other activities and study of the chemical elements which exist in economic quantities in the coasts waters such as magnesium, sulfur and calcium.
• and study of the changes that occur to the shape and locations of beaches and the long term effect of this on cities and their facilities. in the long run.
• Study of the  coasts and territorial waters: including conducting a comprehensive survey using geophysical devices.
• Geo-Marine mapping and  preparing geological and geophysical maps of Yemen's coasts and carrying out advanced studies on the tectonics of the Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf bottom and defining the various types of rocks that form the continental shelf.
• Study of the natural disasters: sea geology is an early alarm system for natural disasters in terms of the marine seismic waves, tsunami and volcanic eruptions in addition to the study of rainfall rates, the melting of calcium carbonates in various marine spheres and their effects on climate change.

Implemented projects and activities:
In recognition of the importance of marine geology and based on Yemen's long coastline both along the possession of long stretching coasts either on the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden, YGSMRB has worked towards the creation of the Marine Geology Department within its organizational structure setup in the Board's branch in Aden governorate. Several sea sciences research centers have been approached for cooperative services and an agreement was  until a deal was finally concluded with the Sea and Oceans Sciences Research Center in South Korea. The key achievements of the Marine Geology Department in coordination and cooperation with this center and the relevant Yemeni bodies have been:
• Coastal studies.
- Study of the Yemeni coasts after dividing them into work blocks starting with Bab Al-Mandab.   
- Study of the coastal sediments and the variations on the sedimentary features with sedimentary and aquatic sampling and analysis in order to build a database and compare its data with that of the neighboring countries.
- Using an Incepting the use of the Single Beam Echo Sounder for marine scanning in order to obtain a multifunctional bottom map using the analysis programs.

•   Mutual Cooperation:
The International Cooperation Program in marine geology has been launched between YGSMRB and the Sea and Oceans Sciences Center in South Korea. The program involves supporting and improving the Marine Geology department in the YGSMRB's Aden branch in all areas and executing three training programs for the Board's staff over 17 days; the first of which involves training on marine geological surveying in cooperation with the Coastguard Authority, the second is about studying sediments and coastal variations on the Yemeni coasts while the third program covers the analysis of the marine surveying of the Gulf of Aden. This cooperation is aimed at improving the capacities of the staff and the Board's infrastructure through the provision of devices and equipment along with the studies, mapping, minerals and sediments detection in the bottom of the sea as well as the adoption of the specialized classification within the Marine Geology Department staff.
4

1The training program took place at the beginning of 2011 in coordination with the Coastguard Authority Command in Sana'a, the Gulf of Aden's Division and the marine formation of boats used in the training. The training involved 13 trainees and was executed by 3 Korean experts. The program covered the following issues:
- Using the Yemeni coastguard boats.
- Using the thematic programs with the emplacement of a planning network for the work area.
- Using the Single Beam Echo Sounder device to produce bathymetric map.
- Placing the reference points in the coasts using advanced devices.
3- Marine sedimentary sampling from the bottom of the sea.
- Marine hydrological sampling from various depths.
- Collection and study of coastal sedimentary samples using the Core Vibration System (CVS).
- Conducting core and marine sedimentary sample analysis.
- Processing and analyzing the data obtained from the deep sea salinity and pressure log.
- Processing the data of coastal sediments.
- Studying and processing the data taken through the marine scanner.
- Developing and preparing reports and configuration of the database.

 

Marine Geology