Labs Services

The Central Labs in YGSMRB conduct various types of analysis and testing related to geosciences. They offer services to the public and private sectors and contribute to the scientific research by holding regular training sessions for students of Yemeni and Arab universities alike.

The laboratories are composed of the following divisions:
• The Sampling division.
• Chemical analyses division.
• Rocks and minerals division
• Geotechnical testing  division
• Environmental analysis division.

The Sampling Division:services-1_06
This division prepares the samples for various analyses:
• Crushing the rock samples using the Jaw crusher in order down to to obtain grain-size samples of 2 to 10 mm.
• Grinding samples using Pulverizing Disk to obtain fine grain-size samples ranging between 80 and 400 mm.
• Grinding the samples to minus a very delicate size of up to 40 microns using a bal mill. the smoothening instrument (Ball Mill).
• Preparing thin and polished sections. the rocks and polished  flakes.
• Preparing rock cubes to study their physical and mechanical properties.

Chemical analyses Division:services-2_03
The Chemistry Division carries out analysts of rocks, soil, drill core etc to determine the concentrations of major, minor and trace elements within them. The following instruments are used: conducts analyses of various samples of rocks, soil and core…etc. The percentage of the main elements oxides are measured in addition to the concentrations of rare and ancient elements using the following instruments:
• Absorption of Atomic Spectrum (AAS) instrument device which is used to determine profile the following elements and oxides:
services-2_06- Qualitative and quantitative testing of the concentration of these elements: Pb, Co, Cr, Sn, Sb, Bi, Pt, Cd, Ti, Sr, V, Ag, Au, Zn, Cu, Ni)
- Measuring the gold concentration (ppm 10-0.5).
- Measuring the following oxides:
Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O, TiO2, SiO2, Al2O3
• An Induction Coupled Plasma Analyzer The Plasma Instrument (ICP-OES) to determine the concentrations of the following major, minor and trace measure the following main and rare elements:
Ni, P, Pb, Ag, Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Sb, Se, Si, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, Zn, Zr, La, Ga, W, In

services-2_08The ICP device is capable of analyzing 72 elements and up to 80-100 samples can be analyzed per day. This instrument is one of the latest plasma devices and was  the labs were upgraded with in 2010.

• X-Ray Florescence Analyzer (XRF): this instrument is used to analyze 92 chemical elements starting from the Beryllium (Be) to the Uranium (U) in addition to analyzing the oxides of services-3_03the following elements:
SiO2, Al2O3, Fe2O3, CaO, MgO, Na2O, K2O and TiO2

The Board's Central Laboratory possess the latest edition of X-ray florescence devices model WDX200 which was delivered to the labs in 2010.

The device can be used for several applications in geology, mining, cement, environment, ferroalloys, forensic, pharmacology and agriculture.
• Fire Assay Method:
This is an old method yet it is one of the most reliable ways services-3_06to for assay gold and silver in the rock samples or concentrated samples.
It is based on smelting the samples in special electrically heated ovens following by mixing them with some refractory materials in order to melt the samples and separate the impurities from the precious metals such as gold and the group of platinum elements. Besides the refractory elements, lead or nickel are added as accumulation materials for collectors  and then the concentration degree of precious metals is measured by various methods through various ways such as atomic absorption, ICP and direct weighing.  and plasma…etc.
Rocks and Metals Division:services-4_03
This division conducts assays of rocks and minerals using the following instruments:

• X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) instrument is used to identify the compositions of  recognize various mud and rock samples. The Device is operated based on Bragg Diffraction Law.
• Microscopic studies: metals and rocks are analyzed using the polarized light microscope while the reflected light microscope is used to study the dark metals. The Metals Division has various updated microscopes with cameras.
services-4_07• A Colorimeter (whiteness degree) to test the color temperature degree, whiteness, brightness and yellowness of the crushed rock samples. The instrument is also used to profile the brightness of calcium carbonates and some other filler metals for use in industrial applications.
• Analyzing for heavy metals.
services-4_10• Magnetic separation of metals and minerals.
• Defining the percentage of equivalent sand.
• Separating clay minerals using pipette analysis.
• Study of the precious stones: the refractive index, specific gravity weight and physical and microscopic properties.
Analysis of Radioactive Elements Division:services-5_03
This division conducts analysis related to the radioactive elements using the following methods and instruments:
• X-Ray Florescence Instrument (XRF) which is used to measure the concentrations of most elements in the Periodic Table except for the ones with light atomic weight. The samples of rocks, sediments, plant and water samples and the oxides of the main elements except for Magnesium Oxide.
• Gamma Ray Instrument which is used to analyze the radioactive elements such as the Uranium, Thorium, and Potassium and Lead…etc. the instrument's philosophy is to pile the Radon gas emitted by the radioactive elements and then detecting the Gamma ray of the Radon itself.
• Fluorometer which is used to analyze and profile the concentrations of Uranium and Thorium in rocks, soil and the building stones.

Geotechnical Testing Division: services-5_07
This Division undertakes the physical and mechanic geotechnical tests on rocks and debris. All tests are conducted in accordance with the specifications of the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM).

Geotechnical tests are done using the following ways and methods:
Densitometry: the labs have the latest device to measure the density of rocks, metals, soil and debris..etc. in addition to fluids.
• The Specific Weight: the specific weight experiment is done to various samples of rocks and minerals.
• Volumetric gradation and moisture content: the volumetric gradation and moisture content are tested in the soil, rock and debris samples.
services-6_03• Corrosion resistance (soundness): the debris resistance to corrosion caused by chemical materials is identified along with the resistivity to the climate factors resulting from erosion and weathering.
• Compressive and tensile strength: the compression and tensile testing device is used to determine the rocks and cement resistance to compression and tension.
• Ductility and flakiness measurements.
• Determination of the penetration, porosity and water absorption.

services-6_07Environmental Testing Division
This division conducts analyses of water and soil, tests to determine the environmental contamination with various organic and non-organic elements and substances using the following instruments:
• Electrical conductivity measurement instrument.
• Hydrogen ion concentration Power of Hydrogen (PH meter).
• Total Dissolved Solids (T.D.S), Total Solids (T.S) and Total Suspended Solids (T.S.S) meter.
• Organic carbon analysis in soil by traditional methods.
services-6_11• Ultra Violet Spectrometer (UVS) which is used to profile the concentrations of some rare elements and minus ionic roots.
• Measuring the concentrations of Tungsten, Titanium and Molybdenum.
• Profiling the ionic roots of phosphates, sulfate, nitrates and nitrous.